Top Ranking System
College rankings are gaining importance as more employers look at
top-ranked colleges for top-rate employees. Rankings are also often
consulted by prospective students and their parents in the university and
college admissions process. University rankings can be based on subjectively
perceived "quality," on some combination of statistics, or on surveys of
educators, scholars, students, or others. Although most individuals know
that rankings based upon statistics often are biased, rankings have had a
two-fold impact: they provide an impetus for colleges to perform better;
and, they provide a tool that helps prospective students choose a college.
The following table briefly summarizes the statistics the some of the major
university ranking websites base their rankings on.
||QS World University Rankings
|Size (S) 20%.
Visibility (V) 50%
Rich Files (R) 15%
Scholar (Sc) 15%.
|Quality of Education 10%
Quality of Faculty 40%
Research Output 40%
Per Capita Performance 10%
upon an algorithm
including three unbiased
web metrics: Google Page Rank, total number of
inbound links and Alexa Traffic
|Academic Peer Review 40%
Employer Review 10%
Faculty Student Ratio 20 % Citations per Faculty 20% International
Faculty 5% International Students 5%
Links quantity 30% Quality of links and content 40%
Online scientific information 10%
University Ranking Methodologies
According to webometrics university activity is multi-dimensional and this
is reflected in its web presence. So the best way to build the ranking is by
combining a group of indicators that measure these different aspects. The
webometrics four indicators that are used to rank universities were obtained
from the quantitative results provided by the main search engines as
Size (S). Number of pages recovered from four engines: Google, Yahoo, Live
Search and Exalead. For each engine, results are log-normalised to 1 for the
highest value. Then for each domain, maximum and minimum results are
excluded and every institution is assigned a rank according to the combined
Visibility (V). The total number of unique external links received (inlinks)
by a site can be only confidently obtained from Yahoo Search.
Rich Files (R). After evaluation of their relevance to academic and
publication activities and considering the volume of the different file
formats. These data were extracted using Google.
Scholar (Sc). Google Scholar provides the number of papers and citations for
each academic domain. These results from the Scholar database represent
papers, reports and other academic items.
Academic Ranking of World Universities (ARWU)
ARWU considers every university that has any Nobel Laureates, Fields
Medalists, Highly Cited Researchers, or papers published in Nature or
Science. In addition, universities with significant amount of papers indexed
by Science Citation Index-Expanded (SCIE) and Social Science Citation Index
(SSCI) are also included.
Universities are ranked by several indicators of academic or research
performance, including alumni and staff winning Nobel Prizes and Fields
Medals, highly cited researchers, papers published in Nature and Science,
papers indexed in major citation indices, and the per capita academic
performance of an institution. The indicators are as follows
Quality of Education The total number of the alumni of an institution
winning Nobel Prizes and Fields Medals.
Quality of Faculty The total number of the staff of an institution winning
Nobel Prizes in Physics, Chemistry, Medicine and Economics and Fields Medal
in Mathematics . The number of highly cited researchers in 21 subject
categories are also considered.
Research Output The number of papers published in Nature and Science between
2004 and 2008 and the total number of papers indexed in Science Citation
Index-Expanded and Social Science Citation Index in 2008. Only publications
of 'Article' and 'Proceedings Paper' types are considered.
Per Capita Performance The weighted scores of the above five indicators
divided by the number of full-time equivalent academic staff. If the number
of academic staff for institutions of a country cannot be obtained, the
weighted scores of the above five indicators is used.
4 International Colleges and Universities (4ICU)
Universities and Colleges are sorted by 4icu.org Web Popularity Ranking. The
ranking is based upon an algorithm including three unbiased and independent
web metrics extracted from three different search engines:
â€¢ - Google Page Rank
â€¢ - Yahoo Inbound Links
â€¢ - Alexa Traffic Rank
The aim of 4ICU rankings is to provide an approximate popularity ranking of
worldwide Universities and Colleges based upon the popularity of their
websites. This can especially help international students to understand how
popular a specific University/College is in a foreign country.
QS World University Rankings
The QS World University Rankings were conceived to present a multi-faceted
view of the relative strengths of the world's leading universities. The
overall rankings are compiled based in six distinct indicators:
Academic Peer Review The Academic Peer Review is based on an online survey
distributed to academics worldwide. Respondents are not permitted to submit
their own institution or to respond more than once (their latest response is
counted). Weightings are applied both geographically and by discipline to
ensure as fair a representative spread as possible.
Employer Review Similar to the Academic Peer Review, this indicator is based
on a global online survey, this time distributed to employers. Geographical
weightings are again applied to ensure fair representation from key regions
of the world.
Faculty Student Ratio Faculty Student Ratio is used in many ranking systems
and evaluations in the world, and whilst it may not be a perfect measure of
teaching quality, it is the most globally available and accessible measure
of commitment to teaching. An indication that the institution in question
has sufficient staff to teach its students.
Citations per Faculty Citations are a widely used, conventional measure of
research strength. A citation is a reference to one academic publication in
the text of another. The more citations a publication receives the better it
is perceived to be, the more highly cited papers a university publishes, the
stronger it can be considered to be. As a measure this is somewhat geared
towards scientific and technical subjects, which is why it doesn't carry
more weight. The source used in this evaluation is Scopus, the world's
largest abstract and citation database of research literature.
International Factors In today's increasingly globalized world, the most
successful universities have to attract the world's bet students and
faculty. Simple evaluations of the proportion of international students and
international faculty serve as indicators of an institution's international
Eduroute focuses on studying and evaluating university websites and not the
performance of a university. The indicators that are used in ranking the
universities are as follows
Volume This indicator measures the volume of information published on the
website of a university. It is also an indicator of the degree of
interaction between the website and its users whether they are students or
university professors. This in turn reflects the amount of support and
investment the university has put into providing as much information as
possible about the university on its website.
Online scientific information University publications and their number are
one of the major and most important things that have to be taken into
consideration when ranking a university. This is an especially important
aspect of ranking since it attracts researchers and scholars looking for
researches to the website of a certain university
Links quantity Website links are one of the main factors which determine the
success of any website and the degree of its interaction with other related
and good websites. Here Eduroute measures the number of incoming links
whether these links are from academic or nonacademic websites.
Quality of links and content This ranking factor mainly measures the quality
of links and factors. Sometimes some of the university's provide lots of
content and links on their website without taking into consideration the
quality of those links and the content published on the website. Some
universities also resort to buying links without taking into consideration
whether or not these links link to other related and renowned websites.
Therefore it was of great importance to measure this aspect of any website
in order to reflect the true size of a university's website on the internet
and to measure the degree in which the university is concerned with the
quality of content it provides on its website.
Criticisms and drawbacks of the rankings
ARWU â€“ As with all rankings, there are issues of methodology, and one of the
primary criticisms of the ranking is its bias towards the natural sciences,
over other subjects and English language science journals. This is evidenced
by the inclusion of criteria such as the volume of articles published by
Science or Nature (both Journals devoted to the natural sciences published
in English), or the number of Nobel Prize winners (which are predominantly
awarded to the physical sciences) and Fields Medalists (mathematics).
Furthermore, the ranking does not take into the account whether those
winners are still associated with the institutes nor consider where the
award winning works were performed. As a result, it creates a superficial
phantom award counting game in favor of older and more established
institutes even though these institutes may not have active winners in their
faculty rosters, or the rich American institutes that attract prize winners
with big financial reward even though no award winning work was done there.
Counting the number of articles in Nature and Science Journals as one of the
major criteria in ranking institutes appears highly superficial because many
award winning works were not published in these journals.
QS World University Rankings â€“ Since the rankings are primarily based on
Academic Peer Review and Employer Review respectively any unfavorable image
developed by a group of universities, associated by country, tends to harm
their collective rankings. For this reason, universities worldwide should
seriously consider adhering to internationally accepted standards so that
they donâ€™t not run the risk of sliding in the ranks on the international
Webometrics â€“ Webometric indicators are provided to show the commitment of
the institutions to Web publication. Thus, Universities of high academic
quality may be ranked lower than expected due to a restrained web
4ICU- The methodology used in this site ranks colleges and universities
based on their websites' popularity and usage; it does not measure the
schools or their programs by quality of education or services. .